Privredni izveštaj - Poslednja šansa / Economic Report - Last Chance
četvrtak decembar 14, 2017
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Poslednja šansa za bolje sutra

Privredni izveštaj / Economic Report - ALEKSANDAR STEVANOVIĆ
Ambasador Belorusije u Srbiji / Ambassador of Belarus in Serbia

Aleksandar StevanovićDanas je Srbija zemlja problema. Državna kasa ima manjak, javni sektor ima višak, ne zna se šta će biti sa platama i penzijama, rečju, krajnje je vreme da se, ne gubeći vreme na političke rasprave ko je i kako doveo do svega, suočimo sa nedaćama i potražimo rešenje. Da bismo se vratili na pravi put, kažu, neophodno je izmeniti zakone, uvesti red u institucije i javna preduzeća, stvoriti povoljniju investicionu klimu. Ukoliko počnemo na vreme i sprovedemo neophodne reforme, Srbija bi, za nekoliko godina, mogla da postane zemlja iz koje se neće bežati, zemlja šansi a ne straha od budućnosti, zemlja čiji će novčanici pokazati da su reforme uspele, kaže za The Globe savetnik ministra privrede Aleksandar Stevanović.

Ministar Radulović svakodnevno poručuje da je neophodno što pre izmeniti postojeći Zakon o radu. Šta će doneti te izmene i, uopšte, šta donose izmene još dva sistemska zakona − o stečaju i privatizaciji?

Zakon o radu je identifikovan kao jedna od ključnih prepreka u smanjenju nezaposlenosti, posebno dugoročne nezaposlenosti starijih osoba, odnosno kao jedan od ključnih faktora zašto MSP u velikom broju rade ili zapošljavaju na crno. Zakon treba da omogući lakše zapošljavanje kroz smanjenje rizika zapošljavanja, odnosno olakšavanje firmama da se prilagođavaju promenama na tržištu. Nacrt zakona vezuje otpremnine za godine staža kod poslednjeg poslodavca i njegovih povezanih lica, što je jedino logično rešenje. Konačno, ovakve izmene će dovesti do toga da se poboljša struktura poslodavaca jer je, u trenutnom mulju koji imamo, najbolje onima koji svesno krše zakone. S druge strane, ovakava rešenja će afirmisati ulogu onih sindikata koji su istinski predstavnici radnika, kroz jačanje uloge kolektivnog pregovaranja na nivou firmi. Zakon o privatizaciji treba da spreči sve negativne pojave koje su dovele do toga da se ključna institucija slobodnog društva – privatno vlasništvo – u Srbiji u velikoj meri obesmisli kroz pljačkaške privatizacije. Novi zakon stvara bolje osnove za dobijanje kvalitenih investitora – firme i pojedinci koji su se već pokazali kao štetočine u dosadašnjem procesu privatizacije neće moći da učestvuju, preduzeća koja imaju sedišta u neuređenim poreskim sistemima takođe neće moći da učestvuju, moraće se znati koja to tačno fizička lica stoje iza svake firme... Uz svođenje dugova firmi u restrukturiranju na nivo kapitala kroz konverziju potraživanja u kapital kroz UPPR ili stečaj, u procesu privatizacije će biti ponuđene firme očišćene od dugova i lošeg menadžmenta. Ovakav razvoj dovešće mnogo kvalitetnije investitore i neće nam se ponoviti štetočinske prakse kao što su one u Vršačkim vinogradima, Prvoj petoletci i drugim nakaradnim privatizacijama. Novi zakon otvara mogućnost da se rukodstva koja ne sarađuju sa državom i rastaču imovinu firmi koje su predmet restrukturiranja − smene. Konačno, nacrt Zakona o privatizaciji uvodi više oblika privatizacije – kupovinu 100% kapitala, kupovinu dela kapitala, ugovor o menadžmentu i dokapitalizaciju. Zakon o stečaju donosi nekoliko novina koje stečaj treba da pretvore u izvor rešenja i ozdravljenja, a ne u izvor propasti i put u likvidaciju. Radnička potraživanja po osnovu plata ulaze u prvi red. Potraživanja povezanih lica ulaze u poslednji red za naplatu. Državu će zastupati samo jedan zastupnik, nezavisno od toga koliko državnih institucija i firmi je poverilac. Licenciranje stečajnih upravnika će, kao što je praksa u svim slobodnim profesijama, obavljati struka, a ne partijsko telo.

Vaše ministarstvo obavezalo je preduzeća da dostave „lične karte“. Šta one pokazuju, kakvo je stanje u firmama u restrukturiranju?

Lične karte pokazuju da je deset godina restrukturiranja dovelo do suštinskog unazađivanja i rastakanja firmi čiji se status rešavao, a da su građani Srbije i firme koje imaju zdrave biznise za tu egzibiciju platili gotovo 5 milijardi dolara. Lične karte pokazuju da se državnom imovinom upravljalo loše, jer sama činjenica da menadžment mnogih firmi nije imao podatke ili nije želeo da objavi podatke govori o tome kako se tim firmama upravljalo. Proces izrade ličnih karata je pokazao da u gotovo svim tim firmama ima snage i ima ljudi koji hoće da pomognu da se sa štetočinstvom prestane. Konačno, kada smo se oslobodili ili kada je izvesno da će te firme biti oslobođene dugova i lošeg menadžmenta, postaje jasno da one nisu nerešiv problem i da ima onih koji žele da investiraju, ali su bili odvraćeni u vreme dok je glib bio kratak opis stanja koje je vladalo u ovom segmentu privrede.

(Nastavak teksta u štampanom izdanju)

 

The last chance for a better tomorrow

Today, Serbia is a problematic country. The state budget has a deficit; the public sector has a surplus and it is not known what will happen to wages and pensions; in one word, it is time to face adversity and find a solution without wasting time in political debates about who is responsible for it. It is said that, in order to return to the right path, we must change laws, bring order to institutions and public companies and create a favorable investment climate. If we start on time and carry out the necessary reforms, in a few years Serbia will become the country from which people will not run away, a land of opportunities that will not fear the future, a country whose wallets will show that reforms succeeded - said to The Globe Aleksander Stevanović, Advisor to the Minister of Economy.

Minister Radulović says everyday that we must change the existing labor laws as soon as possible. What will changes bring and what is the importance of two more laws, the bankruptcy law and the privatization law?

The Labor Law has been identified as one of the key barriers for the reduction of unemployment, especially long-term unemployment of older people, and as one of the key factors why many SMEs work or employ people illegally. The law should make employment easier by reducing employment risks, i.e. by helping companies adapt to market changes. The draft law provides severance payments according to the years of service with the last employer and its related entities, as the only logical solution. Finally, these changes will lead to improving the employer’s structure, because the current mess is ideal for those who knowingly violate the law. On the other hand, this solution will promote the role of those unions that are true representatives of workers, by strengthening the role of collective negotiation at company level. The Privatization Law should prevent all the negative phenomena that led to the fact that the key institutions of a free society (private property) in Serbia have been rendered pointless due to criminal privatizations. The new law creates a better basis for the arrival of highquality investors, while companies and individuals that have proven to be pests in previous privatization processes will not be able to participate. The same applies to companies that have disordered tax systems in their headquarters. It will be necessary to establish exactly who the physical persons behind each company are. In addition to reducing the debt of restructuring companies by converting receivables into capital through UPPR or bankruptcy, the privatization process will be offered only to companies free of debt and mismanagement. This development will result in much better investors, preventing detrimental activity practices such as those at Vršac vineyards, “Prva Petoletka” and other flawed privatizations. The new law opens the possibility of dismissing the management of restructuring companies that do not cooperate with the State. Finally, the draft privatization law introduces several forms of privatization - purchase of 100% of the capital, purchase of part of the capital, management contract and recapitalization. The Bankruptcy Law provides a number of novelties that should be seen as a source of solutions and healing and not as a source of failure or as the path to liquidation. Workers’ claims regarding wages have top collection priority, while the claims of related parties are at the bottom of the collection priority list. The state will have only one representative, regardless of how many state institutions have credited the company. As it is the practice in all free professions, Bankruptcy trustees will be licensed according to their professional quality and not by a party entity.

Your ministry has obliged companies to provide “identity cards”. What do they show? What is the situation among companies under restructuring?

Identity cards show that ten years of restructuring led to substantial regression and to the dissolution of companies, whose status was being solved. They also show that Serbian citizens and serious companies paid about 5 billion USD for this exhibition. Identity cards show that state assets were mismanaged, because the very fact that many companies had no data or did not want to publish any information clearly shows how those companies were managed. The creation process of company identity cards showed that in almost all of these companies there are forces and people that are ready to help to stop the infection. Finally, when companies are acquitted of debts or mismanagement, it becomes clear that these are not unsolvable problems and that there are people who wanted to invest, but were averted in a time when the situation that prevailed in this segment of the economy could be shortly described by the word “mud”.

(Continue reading more in printed edition)

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